Mathematical modeling is the process of creating a mathematical representation of a real-world system or phenomenon. This involves developing a set of equations that describe how the various components of the system interact with each other. These models can be used to predict future behavior, analyze the effects of different variables, and optimize performance. Mathematical modeling is widely used in a variety of fields, including physics, engineering, biology, economics, and social sciences. It is a powerful tool for understanding complex systems and making informed decisions.