Photo of William Montfort(montfort)

William Montfort

Professor, Applied Mathematics - GIDP,
Member of the Graduate Faculty,
Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry - Med,
Professor, Genetics - GIDP,
Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry-Sci,
Professor, Cancer Biology - GIDP,
Professor, Molecular and Cellular Biology,
Professor, BIO5 Institute,

Chemistry & Biochemistry - Sci
UAVitae logogoogle scholar logo
Grant: $43.6M
William Montfort received BS and PhD degrees in Chemistry (Biochemistry emphasis) from Oakland University (1980) and the University of Texas (1985). His graduate studies, with Prof. Jon Robertus, led to the crystal structure of ricin. In his postdoctoral studies, with Prof. Robert Stroud at the University of California, San Francisco, he determined crystal structures of anticancer drug target thymidylate synthase. He moved to the University of Arizona in 1989, where he established a laboratory focused on protein structure/function and founded the X-ray crystallography facility. He is now Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Director of the NIH-funded Biological Chemistry Graduate Program and Co-Lead for Clinical and Translational Oncology Program in the Cancer Center.
William Montfort experts in biochemistry, structural biology, enzymology, molecular biology, biophysics, nitric oxide, bioinorganic chemistry, protein crystallography, bioinformatics, spectroscopy, x-ray crystallography, computational biology, chemistry, immunology, entomology, pharmacology, inorganic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, raman spectroscopy, nmr spectroscopy, epidemiology, infectious diseases, mass spectrometry, astrophysics, astronomy, rna biology, organic synthesis, insect physiology, physiology, vascular biology, bioengineering, protein structure prediction, microbiology, raman, crystallography, hematopoiesis, biomedical engineering, microfluidics, biosensors, dna nanotechnology, photosynthesis, photocatalysis, genomics, ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular dynamics, cardiovascular pharmacology, virology, insect pathology, evolutionary biology, phylogenetics, biogeography, nephrology, hematology, heme, organic chemistry, chemical biology, proteomics, cardiology, public health, systems biology, nexins, epigenetics, cancer biology
Nucleic Acids, Metabolism, and Signaling 
Metabolic Biochemistry 
Biological Structure I 
Biological Structure 1 
Recent Grants
Logo of DYRK1A Inhibition as a Novel Treatment Approach for Alzheimer's Disease funding agency
2020 $2.3MActive
DYRK1A Inhibition as a Novel Treatment Approach for Alzheimer's Disease
Logo of Chemistry-Biology Interface Training Program funding agency
2019 $1.2MActive
Chemistry-Biology Interface Training Program
Logo of Addressing Breast Cancer Health Disparities in American Indians through Translational and Dissemination/Implementation Science (Diversity Supplement for Dr. Jennifer Erdrich - Cost Extension) funding agency
2019 $346.2KActive
Addressing Breast Cancer Health Disparities in American Indians through Translational and Dissemination/Implementation Science (Diversity Supplement for Dr. Jennifer Erdrich - Cost Extension)
Logo of Structure and Stimulator Binding Mechanism of the Nitric Oxide Receptor, Soluble Guanylate Cyclase funding agency
2017 $106.8K
Structure and Stimulator Binding Mechanism of the Nitric Oxide Receptor, Soluble Guanylate Cyclase
Logo of University of Arizona Cancer Center - Cancer Center Support Grant funding agency
2016 $26.3M
University of Arizona Cancer Center - Cancer Center Support Grant
Logo of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase: A Therapeutic Target for Cardiovascular Pathology funding agency
2016 $50.3K
Soluble Guanylate Cyclase: A Therapeutic Target for Cardiovascular Pathology
Logo of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Health and Disease funding agency
2015 $1.4M
Nitric Oxide Signaling in Health and Disease
Logo of Chemistry-Biology Interface Training Program funding agency
2014 $1.1M
Chemistry-Biology Interface Training Program
Logo of Evaluation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Stimulating Compounds funding agency
2014 $255.2K
Evaluation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Stimulating Compounds
Logo of YC-1 Stimulation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase funding agency
2014 $140.0K
YC-1 Stimulation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase
2008Researchers Paving the Way for New Heart Disease Treatments 
2000Spotlight on Teaching: Wells Gives Students 3-D Understanding of Molecules 
Publications (139)
2022Abstract P5-10-08: Inflammation drives NOS2-Akt2 signaling in triple negative breast cancer 
2022Sorting nexin-dependent therapeutic targeting of oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor 
2021Solution structures of the Shewanella woodyi H‐NOX protein in the presence and absence of soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator IWP‐051 
2020Resolving CD47 Structure and Function to Understand Signal Transduction Mechanism 
2019Method for detecting crosslinked peptides via reproducible fragmentation in a mass spectrometer 
2019Unloading the left ventricle before reperfusion in patients with anterior ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot study using the Impella CP 
2019How stimulator compounds and nitric oxide bind and stimulate soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC1) 
2019Underlying molecular alterations in human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency revealed by structural analyses of disease-causing enzyme variants 
2019Instability in a coiled‐coil signaling helix is conserved for signal transduction in soluble guanylyl cyclase 
2019Detectable IgG against a Cimex lectularius allergen after a report of bed bug bites among NYC children 
2018Novel nitric oxide-liberating heme proteins from the saliva of bloodsucking insects 
2018Characterizing the CD47/TSP-1 Signaling Axis 
2018MetaUniDec: high-throughput deconvolution of native mass spectra 
2018Blocking “don't eat me” signal of CD47-SIRPα in hematological malignancies, an in-depth review 
2018Discovery of stimulator binding to a conserved pocket in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase 
2017A sporadic case of severe peripheral neuropathy expands the phenotypic range of TUBB2A mutations. 
2016Localizing Stimulator Binding to the beta 1 H-NOX Domain of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase 
2016Structure and Activation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, the Nitric Oxide Sensor 
2016Uncovering Stimulator Binding Mechanism to Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase by Solution NMR 
2016Determining Nitric Oxide‐induced Conformational Changes in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase using Lanthanide‐based Resonance Energy Transfer 
2015Dimerization of nitrophorin 4 at low pH and comparison to the K1A mutant of nitrophorin 1 
2015Heat shock protein 90 associates with the Per-Arnt-Sim domain of heme-free soluble guanylate cyclase: implications for enzyme maturation 
2014YC-1 binding to the β subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase overcomes allosteric inhibition by the α subunit 
2014Development of IgE against a Cimex lectularius allergen after being bitten by bed bugs was common among children in NYC 
2014Evolution in an ancient detoxification pathway is coupled with a transition to herbivory in the drosophilidae 
2013Rational reprogramming of fungal polyketide first-ring cyclization 
2013Structural Studies of Thioredoxin S-nitrosation and Detection of Protein S-nitrosothiols by Phosphine Derivatization 
2013pH-dependent picosecond structural dynamics in the distal pocket of nitrophorin 4 investigated by 2D IR spectroscopy 
2013Crystal structure of the Alpha subunit PAS domain from soluble guanylyl cyclase 
2013Molecular model of a soluble guanylyl cyclase fragment determined by small-angle X-ray scattering and chemical cross-linking 
2013YC‑1 Binding to the β Subunit of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Overcomes Allosteric Inhibition by the α Subunit 
2012Nitric Oxide Signaling with Heme Proteins 
2012Thrombospondin-1 Binding to CD47 in the Regulation of Nitric Oxide Signaling 
2012Structural and Functional Studies on the Nitric Oxide Receptor: YC-1 Binding to the PAS Domain of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase 
2012IgE against bed bug (Cimex lectularius) allergens is common among adults bitten by bed bugs 
2011Distal pocket and belt side chain effects on the stabilization of the ferric-NO heme center of the Nitrophorins of Rhodnius prolixus 
2011Thrombospondin-1 and angiotensin II inhibit soluble guanylyl cyclase through an increase in intracellular calcium concentration 
2011Crystal structures of multicopper oxidase CueO bound to copper (I) and silver (I): functional role of a methionine-rich sequence 
2011Oxidation and Loss of Heme in Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase from Manduca sexta 
2010The Reaction of HNO Donors with Heme Proteins 
2010Investigating shape and mechanism of soluble guanylate cyclase: 383 
2010Model for Truncated Soluble Guanylate Cyclase by Negative Stain Electron Microscopy: 384 
2010Crystal structure of human thioredoxin revealing an unraveled helix and exposed S‐nitrosation site 
2010Activation mechanism of soluble guanylate cyclase: New insights from the resonance Raman studies of a truncated insect protein 
2010Ultrafast dynamics of diatomic ligand binding to nitrophorin 4 
2009Crystal structure of the bacterial luciferase/flavin complex provides insight into the function of the β subunit 
2009NM23-H2 may play an indirect role in transcriptional activation of c-myc gene expression but does not cleave the nuclease hypersensitive element III1NM23-H2 and c-Myc Activation 
2009Effect of mutation of carboxyl side-chain amino acids near the heme on the midpoint potentials and ligand binding constants of nitrophorin 2 and its NO, histamine, and … 
2008Transitive homology-guided structural studies lead to discovery of Cro proteins with 40% sequence identity but different folds 
2008Role of an invariant lysine residue in folate binding on Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase: calorimetric and crystallographic analysis of the K48Q mutant 
2008A New Use for a Familiar Fold: The X-ray Crystal Structure of GTP-Bound GTP Cyclohydrolase III from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Reveals a Two Metal Ion Catalytic … 
2008Low-frequency mode activity of heme: femtosecond coherence spectroscopy of iron porphine halides and nitrophorin 
2008Binding of YC-1 or BAY 41-2272 to soluble guanylyl cyclase induces a geminate phase in CO photolysis 
2008Allostery in recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase from Manduca sexta 
2008N15 Cro and λ Cro: Orthologous DNA‐binding domains with completely different but equally effective homodimer interfaces 
2007Assignment of the Ferriheme Resonances of the Low-Spin Complexes of Nitrophorins 1 and 4 by 1H and 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Comparison to Structural Data … 
2007Nonequilibrium dynamics simulations of nitric oxide release: comparative study of nitrophorin and myoglobin 
2007Apo‐nitrophorin 4 at atomic resolution 
2007Haem proteins 
2007X-ray Structure of Cerulean GFP: A Tryptophan-Based Chromophore Useful for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging, 
2007Microsystems for UV-visible and x-ray analysis of protein crystals 
2007S-nitrosylation-induced conformational change in blackfin tuna myoglobin 
2007Buried S-Nitrosocysteine Revealed in Crystal Structures of Human Thioredoxin, 
2006Structural characterization of R. prolixus nitrophorin 4 by UV and visible resonance Raman spectroscopy 
2006Structure of the Y94F mutant of Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase 
2006O19. Crystal structures of S-nitrosated thioredoxin 
2006P062. NO and GSNO stimulation of recombinant soluble guanylate cyclase from Manduca sexta 
2006Crystal structures of thymidylate synthase mutant R166Q: structural basis for the nearly complete loss of catalytic activity 
2006O11. HNO donors and heme proteins 
2006SYMPOSIUM LECTURES-Nitrosyl heme and S-nitrosation in nitric oxide signaling 
20055, 10-Methylene-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydrofolate conformational transitions upon binding to thymidylate synthase: molecular mechanics and continuum solvent studies 
2005Heme-assisted S-nitrosation of a proximal thiolate in a nitric oxide transport protein 
2005Ultrahigh Resolution Structures of Nitrophorin 4: Heme Distortion in Ferrous CO and NO Complexes, 
2005A Novel Copper-Binding Fold for the Periplasmic Copper Resistance Protein CusF, 
2004Cuprous Oxidase Activity of CueO from Escherichia coli 
2004Axial ligand complexes of the Rhodnius nitrophorins: reduction potentials, binding constants, EPR spectra, and structures of the 4-iodopyrazole and imidazole … 
2004Structural dynamics controls nitric oxide affinity in nitrophorin 4 
2004Protein Functional Cycle Viewed at Atomic Resolution: Conformational Change and Mobility in Nitrophorin 4 as a Function of pH and NO Binding, 
2004Role of Binding Site Loops in Controlling Nitric Oxide Release: Structure and Kinetics of Mutant Forms of Nitrophorin 4, 
2004Heme ruffling in nitrophorin 4, a NO transport protein from Rhodnius prolixus 
2004Cimex lectularius nitrophorin characterized by resonance Raman spectroscopy 
2004Loop dynamics and function in nitrophorin 4 
2004Resonance Raman spectroscopic study of nitrophorin 2 from Rhodnius prolixus kissing bug and its mutants 
2004Protein and ligand induced heme distortion in the nitrophorins 
2003Complementing thymidylate synthase 
2003Redox potential of human thioredoxin 1 and identification of a second dithiol/disulfide motif 
2003Nitric oxide transport by blood-sucking insects: Structure and dynamics 
2003A labile regulatory copper ion lies near the T1 copper site in the multicopper oxidase CueO 
2002Crystal structure and electron transfer kinetics of CueO, a multicopper oxidase required for copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli 
2002Nitrophorins: Lipocalin‐based heme proteins transporting nitric oxide 
2002Blocking ligand escape with a stochastic gate in nitrophorin-NO complex 
2001Spectroelectrochemical studies of nitrophorin mutants: The importance of the carboxylates near the heme. 
2001INSECT Rhodnius prolixus 
2001Ligand-Induced Heme Ruffling and Bent NO Geometry in Ultra-High-Resolution Structures of Nitrophorin 4, 
2001Properties and biological activities of thioredoxins 
2001Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Study of Nitrophorin 1, a Nitric Oxide-Binding Heme Protein from Rhodnius prolixus, and Its Nitrosyl and Cyano Adducts 
2000Nitric oxide binding to nitrophorin 4 induces complete distal pocket burial 
2000The nitric oxide-releasing heme proteins from the saliva of the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus 
2000α-Cyclodextrin extracts diacylglycerol from insect high density lipoproteins 
2000Nitrophorins and related antihemostatic lipocalins from Rhodnius prolixus and other blood-sucking arthropods 
2000The crystal structure of Nitrophorin 2: A trifunctional antihemostatic protein from the saliva of Rhodnius prolixus 
2000Nitric oxide transport by a blood-sucking insect: Nitrophorin structure, dynamics, and distal pocket burial 
2000Kinetics and equilibria in ligand binding by nitrophorins 1− 4: Evidence for stabilization of a nitric oxide− ferriheme complex through a ligand-induced conformational trap 
1999Nitric oxide binding to the ferri-and ferroheme states of nitrophorin 1, a reversible NO-binding heme protein from the saliva of the blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus 
1999Structural, spectroscopic and electrochemical comparison of three of the four nitrophorins (NO-releasing heme proteins) from the saliva of the blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius … 
1999In vivo inhibition of histamine-induced vascular leaks with kissing bug (R prolixus) salivary protein NP4. 
1999Structure and reactivity of nitrophorins from a blood-sucking insect 
1999Crystal Structures of Rat Thymidylate Synthase Inhibited by Tomudex, a Potent Anticancer Drug, 
1998The crystal structure of nitrophorin 4 at 1.5 Å resolution: transport of nitric oxide by a lipocalin-based heme protein 
1998Crystal structures of a nitric oxide transport protein from a blood-sucking insect 
1998Mode of action of site-directed irreversible folate analogue inhibitors of thymidylate synthase 
1997Human Thioredoxin Homodimers: Regulation by pH, Role of Aspartate 60, and Crystal Structure of the Aspartate 60 → Asparagine Mutant, 
1997Crystal structures of a marginally active thymidylate synthase mutant, Arg 126→ Glu 
1997Nitric Oxide Binding and Crystallization of Recombinant Nitrophorin I, a Nitric Oxide Transport Protein from the Blood-Sucking Bug Rhodnius prolixus 
1997Thymidylate synthase: structure, inhibition, and strained conformations during catalysis 
1997Reversible no-carrying heme proteins from the saliva of bloodsucking insects. 
1997Use of strain in a stereospecific catalytic mechanism: crystal structures of Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase bound to FdUMP and methylenetetrahydrofolate 
1996Oxidative inactivation of thioredoxin as a cellular growth factor and protection by a Cys73→ Ser mutation 
1996Crystal structures of reduced, oxidized, and mutated human thioredoxins: evidence for a regulatory homodimer 
1995Ligand-induced distortion of an active site in thymidylate synthase upon binding anticancerdrug 1843U89 
1995Promotion of purine nucleotide binding to thymidylate synthase by a potent folate analogue inhibitor, 1843U89. 
1995Characterization of a specific interaction between Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase and Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase … 
1994Crystal structure of thymidylate synthase from T4 phage: component of a deoxynucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex 
1990Pairwise Specificity and Sequential Binding in Enzyme Catalysis: Thymidylate SynthaseT 
1990Pairwise specificity and sequential binding in enzyme catalysis: thymidylate synthase 
1990Segmental accommodation: A novel conformational change induced upon ligand binding by thymidylate synthase 
1990Binding by Thymidylate Synthase1 
1990Plastic adaptation toward mutations in proteins: structural comparison of thymidylate synthases 
1990Structure, multiple site binding, and segmental accommodation in thymidylate synthase on binding dUMP and an anti-folate 
1987Atomic structure of thymidylate synthase: target for rational drug design 
1987The three-dimensional structure of ricin at 2.8 A. 
1985Coordination chemistry of alkali and alkaline earth cations: Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of cesium (picrate)(benzo-15-crown-5) Cs+ C 6 H 2 N 3 O 7−(C 14 H 20 O 5) 
1985X-ray crystallographic studies on the toxic protein ricin