Hybrid functionals are a type of density functional theory (DFT) method used in computational chemistry and physics to calculate the electronic structure of molecules and materials. They combine the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation with a fraction of exact exchange energy from Hartree-Fock theory. This combination aims to improve the accuracy of DFT calculations by including the non-local effects of exchange interactions, which are important for describing electron correlation and dispersion interactions. Hybrid functionals are widely used in studying a variety of properties of materials, such as band structures, reaction energetics, and electronic properties. Overall, hybrid functionals offer a good balance between computational efficiency and accuracy, making them a popular choice for researchers in the field of theoretical and computational chemistry.