Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics and physics that studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. These systems are often characterized by seemingly random and unpredictable behavior, even though they follow deterministic laws. Chaos theory explores the complex and sometimes non-linear dynamics of these systems, helping researchers better understand and predict phenomena such as weather patterns, population dynamics, and financial markets. Chaos theory has applications in a wide range of fields, including biology, economics, and engineering.